Functioning like an Adult. (In the Shell)

functioning like an adult

I would like to propose we should all function as adults at some point in life. maybe not 24 hours a day but enough to take care of ourselves.

PowerShell is an area that need you to be functioning to preserve your sanity and time, I will cover simple & advanced functions.

A function can save you a ton of typing and it could do quite a bit and be called using the infamous tab completion!

Simple Function Example:

Function Test-Google
{
Try{ $result=Test-Connection google.com
if ($result -ne $null){ write-host "Google is up and reachable" -ForegroundColor Green} 
}
Catch{write-host "Google Error Occured" -ForegroundColor Red}

}

 

Advanced Function Example:

Function Test-NetworkConnectivity
{
[cmdletbinding()]
param(
[parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName,ValueFromPipeline)][Object[]]$Website =@( "google.com","Bing.com")
)
Begin{}

Process{
FOREACH($SITE IN $Website)
{
Try{ $result=Test-Connection -ComputerName $site
if ($result -ne $null){ write-host "$site is up and reachable" -ForegroundColor Green} 
}
Catch{write-host "$site Error Occured" -ForegroundColor Red}
}
}
}

Take the time to explore tab completion.  this advanced function has way more capability and any questions?

 

 

Eventfully Troubleshooting Desktop Issues.

in the event you need to check your computer events to track down issues with your machine I must implore you to use “get-EventLog”

 

use this to your advantage to pinpoint issues.

 

in the image I used :

Get-EventLog -LogName system -Newest 1 -EntryType Error | Format-List

 

mainly to for word wrap and readability you can also automate this and dump to a report or email every so often.

 

 

Audit Objects in your Domain(s) Ready to Switch?

I find it important to figure out who and what is in your active directory OUs

get-aduser $TargetedUser

What about groups, and computers?

get-adobject $targetObject

this includes users, groups, and computers.

here is a switch that will report differently based on object class property that gets returned.

get-adobject -filter *| foreach-object{
Switch($_.Objectclass) {

User{ write-host "Found a User" -foregroundcolor red
      $_ | export-csv Users.csv -notypeinformation -append
     } #end User

Group{ write-host "Found a Group" -foregroundcolor blue
       $_ | export-csv Group.csv -notypeinformation -append
     } #end group

Computer{ write-host "Found a Computer" -foregroundcolor cyan
          $_ | export-csv Computers.csv -notypeinformation -append
     }#end Computer
}#end switch

}#end Foreach-object from pipeline

Add-Member if you want to effectively “object” all things and possess their property.

I thought I would clarify this as most articles don’t simplify this to easily wrap you head around.

Add-member is what I would use to add a new member to a group of properties on an object

  1. I create the object
  2.  Add a noteproperty that translate to text
  3. create a scriptmethod that can do things based on a scriptblock when called.
  4. create a scriptproperty that runs each time you call the $x object to display the results of it’s script block.
Here is the code:
$x=new-object psobject
$x| add-member -name ID – value “smithx” -membertype Noteproperty
$x| add-member -name ADlookup -value { get-aduser $x.name } -membertype scriptmethod
$x|add–member -name ADinfo -value {$x.adlookup()} -membertype Scriptproperty

if you want you can overwrite a member with the -force command.

Try & Catching Errors so you can relax Finally.

Sometimes you gotta Try…. okay enough pep talk.

using the Try Command will allow you to catch any terminating errors. unless you specify for some commands you will not catch the errors and may not want to actually.

example:

 Try{ get-childitem c:\incorrectlyspelledfolder\  -erroraction Stop -recurse -errorvariable ErrorCity}

#for every Try there must be a catch

Catch {write-host "Error: $($errorCity.gettype().fullname)"}

I wrote this to have the error show the  expression needed to catch specific errors you actually care about.

so you can to catches or specific instructions to go with specific errors. lie write this to one file and email the results on another catch instance.

Example:

  Try{ 
$folder="c:\windows"
get-childitem $folder -erroraction Stop -recurse -errorvariable ErrorCity -OutVariable Results 
}
 #for every Try there must be a catch #specific to error records now it will write the line.
catch [System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord]{Write-host "Typo?"} #this catch will catch any other error like permission denied, etc. 
Catch {write-host "Error: $($errorCity.gettype().fullname)" -ForegroundColor Red} 


Finally{write-host "finished processing $folder " -ForegroundColor Green
        write-host "Sub Folders are :"
        $Results.fullname
        }
#finally is optional to do a set of command regardless of error on the object being processed.
Good Luck Trying & catching errors and finally understanding.

Stuffing Objects (Splatting or Hash)

so I seen this exchange command

Get-ReceiveConnector  is a neat cmd-let that allows for you to grab some quick information. but lets say the information was incorrect and you wanted to set up a newer connecter for Exchange.

you Stuff it in an Object:

$StuffedObject= Get-ReceiveConnector

Short Way : Clean

New-recieveConnecter  @stuffedObject -whatif

Long Way: (very messy)

$ReceiveConnectors | foreach {
New-ReceiveConnector -Name $_.Name -RemoteIPRanges $_.RemoteIPRanges -bindings $_.Bindings -Banner $_.Banner -ChunkingEnabled $_.ChunkingEnabled -DefaultDomain $_.DefaultDomain -DeliveryStatusNotificationEnabled $_.DeliveryStatusNotificationEnabled -EightBitMimeEnabled $_.EightBitMimeEnabled -DomainSecureEnabled $_.DomainSecureEnabled -LongAddressesEnabled $_.LongAddressesEnabled -OrarEnabled $_.OrarEnabled -Comment $_.Comment -Enabled $_.Enabled -ConnectionTimeout $_.ConnectionTimeout -ConnectionInactivityTimeout $_.ConnectionInactivityTimeout -MessageRateLimit $_.MessageRateLimit -MaxInboundConnection $_.MaxInboundConnection -MaxInboundConnectionPerSource $_.MaxInboundConnectionPerSource -MaxInboundConnectionPercentagePerSource $_.MaxInboundConnectionPercentagePerSource -MaxHeaderSize $_.MaxHeaderSize -MaxHopCount $_.MaxHopCount -MaxLocalHopCount $_.MaxLocalHopCount -MaxLogonFailures $_.MaxLogonFailures -MaxMessageSize $_.MaxMessageSize -MaxProtocolErrors $_.MaxProtocolErrors -MaxRecipientsPerMessage $_.MaxRecipientsPerMessage -PermissionGroups $_.PermissionGroups -PipeliningEnabled $_.PipeLiningEnabled -ProtocolLoggingLevel $_.ProtocolLoggingLevel -RequireEHLODomain $_.RequireEHLODomain -RequireTLS $_.RequireTLS -EnableAuthGSSAPI $_.EnableAuthGSSAPI -ExtendedProtectionPolicy $_.ExtendedProtectionPolicy -ExtendedProtectionTlsTerminatedAtProxy $_.ExtendedProtectionTlsTerminatedAtProxy -SizeEnabled $_.SizeEnabled -TarpitInterval $_.TarpitInterval -Server $NewServer -WhatIf

 

 

Robocopy is PowerShell’s Robust-tool.

See the source image

So lets create a scenario,  and say that they were having difficulty using Robocopy commands within or with PowerShell. Here’s a demonstration of how to use PowerShell to be able to deliver seamless and accurate commands that will ensure that you will have your data copied and have your PowerShell script.

The best part of PowerShell is the ability to manipulate objects of different types in the same way regardless of data type.

let’s start with planning out the end product and work towards constructing our objects.

 

Import your file with source and destination or you can wing it into a function. For demonstration purposes we will cover both.

 

Example 1: Scripted with external file input 

$data=import-csv data.csv

$count=0

$total=$data.count

foreach($item in $data)

{

$count+=1 #some people use $count++

$source= $item.source

$destination=$item.Destination

Write-Progress -Activity “Copying $source to $destination” -PercentComplete ($count/$total*100)

Robocopy $source $destination /mir /mt:8 /r:1 /w:1

} #end foreach statement in script

 

This one s a little tricky due to the possibility of quotation exceptions;  Folders with spaces that require quotes.

 Example 2: Interactive PowerShell session

set-location c:\rootoftargetfolders

get-childitem  |foreach-object {
$source= $_.fullname
$destination=”d:\destinationfolder\$($_.basename)”
Robocopy “$source” “$destination” /mir /mt:8 /r:1 /w:1
} #end foreach-object

 

Example 3: Function best saved in $profile (PowerShell Profile) 

function RoboCopy-Item ($Source,$destination)

{

Robocopy $Source” “$Destination /mir /mt:8 /r:1 /w:1

} #end function

#now to try it

RoboCopy-item  -Source c:\files -destination D:\usb_documents

 

Conclusion:

I know sometimes dealing with syntax can be a headache but when you take the time to experiment with the shell it is a good path to accumulate lessons learned.

RoboCopy and PowerShell can play nice, of course adding in some try/catch to control your logging output to a text, html or csv or installing a module that can output logs directly to Microsoft Excel or take the old-school approach and use the /log file switch for RoboCopy.

 

 

Blogs to come….

I have some updates coming soon, going to write

  • some exchange cmdlet and automation I scripted for easier use in the future.
  • Some Permission automation tricks
  • user profile back up script
  • some quick recon functions
  • fancy PowerShell generated report on Microsoft word.